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Creating Cultures of Thinking

The 8 Forces We Must Master to Truly Transform Our Schools

Paperback Engels 2015 9781118974605
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Discover why and how schools must become places where thinking is valued, visible, and actively promoted
As educators, parents, and citizens, we must settle for nothing less than environments that bring out the best in people, take learning to the next level, allow for great discoveries, and propel both the individual and the group forward into a lifetime of learning. This is something all teachers want and all students deserve. In Creating Cultures of Thinking: The 8 Forces We Must Master to Truly Transform Our Schools, Ron Ritchhart, author of Making Thinking Visible, explains how creating a culture of thinking is more important to learning than any particular curriculum and he outlines how any school or teacher can accomplish this by leveraging 8 cultural forces: expectations, language, time, modeling, opportunities, routines, interactions, and environment.
With the techniques and rich classroom vignettes throughout this book, Ritchhart shows that creating a culture of thinking is not about just adhering to a particular set of practices or a general expectation that people should be involved in thinking. A culture of thinking produces the feelings, energy, and even joy that can propel learning forward and motivate us to do what at times can be hard and challenging mental work.


Aantal pagina's:384
Uitgever:Jossey Bass


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List of Figures ix
Acknowledgments xi
About the Author xiii

INTRODUCTION Demystifying Group and Organizational Culture 1
A New Standard for Education 5
The Forces that Shape Culture 6
Tools for Transformation 10

ONE The Purpose and Promise of Schools 13
Thinking Differently about Outcomes 16
Teaching as Enculturation 19
Culture as the Enactment of a Story 20
Enacting Our New Story, Realizing Our Vision 34
Uncovering the Story of Your School or Classroom 35

TWO Expectations: Recognizing How Our Beliefs Shape Our Behavior 37
Focusing Students on the Learning vs. the Work 43
Teaching for Understanding vs. Knowledge 47
Encouraging Deep vs. Surface Learning Strategies 50
Encouraging Independence vs. Dependence 54
Developing a Growth vs. a Fixed Mindset 55
Exploring and Developing Expectations 59

THREE Language: Appreciating Its Subtle Yet Profound Power 61
The Language of Thinking 68
The Language of Community 71
The Language of Identity 74
The Language of Initiative 75
The Language of Mindfulness 78
The Language of Praise and Feedback 81
The Language of Listening 82
Leveraging Language 84
Becoming Proficient Users of the Languages of the Classroom 85

FOUR Time: Learning to Be Its Master Rather Than Its Victim 87
Recognizing Time as a Statement of Your Values 96
Learning to Prioritize and Always Prioritizing Learning 98
Giving Thinking Time 102
Investing Time to Make Time 105
Managing Energy, Not Time 107
It s Time to Rethink Time 110
Getting a Better Perspective on Time 112

FIVE Modeling: Seeing Ourselves through Our Students Eyes 115
Dispositional Apprenticeship: Being a Role Model of Learning and Thinking 125
Cognitive Apprenticeship: Making Our Thinking Visible 129
Gradual Release of Responsibility: Modeling for Independence 132
Interactive Modeling: Learning from Examples, Practice, and Reflection 135
Learning from Models 136
Modeling for the Development of Thinking, Learning, and Independence 138

SIX Opportunities: Crafting the Vehicles for Learning 141
Constructing Character: Using Mathematics to Understand Othello s Iago 144
VoiceThread: Using Storytelling to Understand Migration 150
Music 2 Save Music 154
Categorizing, Recognizing, and Realizing Learning Opportunities 159
Analyzing and Creating Opportunities for Learning 169

SEVEN Routines: Supporting and Scaffolding Learning and Thinking 171
A Routine Is More Than an Activity 177
Using Claim–Support–Question to Delve Into Number Theory in Fifth Grade 179
More Than a Game: Differentiating Mathematics in Second Grade 185
Making CSQ Fly in Secondary Mathematics 188
Tools, Structures, and Patterns: Establishing Routines in the Classroom 190
Making Thinking Routine in Our Classrooms 196

EIGHT Interactions: Forging Relationships That Empower Learners 199
New Roles for Students: Empowering Disenfranchised Learners 204
Beyond Sit and Get: Teaching Students to Build on One Another s Ideas 212
Building Culture through Affect and Actions 218
Shaping Interactions through Roles 220
Asking Good Questions 221
Creating New Patterns of Discourse 223
Promoting Interactions That Support Thinking and Learning 225

NINE Environment: Using Space to Support Learning and Thinking 227
New Learning in an Old Container 231
Curating a Classroom 234
Designing for Thinking 242
Creating Environments to Enhance Learning and Build Culture: Four Fronts 247
Creating Environments That Bring Out the Best in Learners 259

TEN Moving toward Transformation 261
A Close Look at Substantive Change 263
Supporting Change on a Large Scale 267
Building a Vision across a School District 276
Learning Together for the Long Haul 281
Creating Opportunities 287
Building the Capacity of Teachers to Teach One Another 293
Using Inquiry–Action Projects to Go Deeper 298
Sameness and Difference in the Journey to a Culture of Thinking 303
APPENDIX A My Reflections on the Learning Activities in This Class 307
APPENDIX B Ladder of Feedback 309
APPENDIX C Success Analysis Protocol 311
APPENDIX D Looking At Students Thinking (LAST) Protocol 313
APPENDIX E Six Key Principles of the Cultures of Thinking Project 315
APPENDIX F Laying the Foundation for a Culture of Thinking 317
APPENDIX G Leading a Culture of Thinking at My School 319
APPENDIX H The Development of a Culture of Thinking in My Classroom 323
APPENDIX I Assessment Ladder 327
References 329
Subject Index 351
Name Index 361

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