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Concise Rules of APA Style

Ringband Engels 2020 9781433832734
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Concise Guide to APA Style, Seventh Edition is the official APA Style resource for students. Designed specifically for undergraduate writing, this easy-to-use pocket guide is adapted from the seventh edition of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. It provides complete guidance for new writers on effective, clear, and inclusive scholarly communication and the essentials of formatting papers and other course assignments.

New to This Edition: full color throughoutcontent relevant to a range of majors and courses, including psychology, social work, criminal justice, communications, composition, education, business, engineering, and morea new chapter focused on student papersa sample student title page, paper, and annotated bibliographystreamlined APA Style headings and in-text citationsa new chapter on writing style and grammarchapters on punctuation, lists, italics, spelling, capitalization, abbreviations, numbers, and statisticsthe latest bias-free language guidelinesnew sample tables and figuresguidance on avoiding plagiarism and self-plagiarismnew reference templates and examples


Trefwoorden:schrijven, taal, Engels
Aantal pagina's:326


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1. Student Paper Types, Elements, and Format
General Guidelines for Student Papers
Application of APA Style to Student Papers
Student Essays
Annotated Bibliographies
Dissertations and Theses
Paper Elements
Student Paper Required Elements
Title Page
Author Name (Byline)Author Affiliation
Text (Body)Reference List
Importance of Format
Order of Pages
Page Header
Special Characters
Line Spacing
Paragraph Alignment
Paragraph Indentation
Paper Length
Principles of Organization
Heading Levels
Section Labels
Sample Student Paper

2. Writing Style and Grammar
Effective Scholarly Writing
Continuity and Flow
Noun Strings
Conciseness and Clarity
Wordiness and Redundancy
Sentence and Paragraph Length
Contractions and Colloquialism
JargonLogical Comparisons
Grammar and Usage
Verb Tense
Active and Passive Voice
MoodSubject and Verb Agreement
First- Versus Third-Person Pronouns
Editorial "We"Singular "They"Pronouns for People and Animals ("Who" vs. "That")
Pronouns as Subjects and Objects ("Who vs. Whom")
Pronouns in Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Clauses ("That" vs. "Which")
Subordinate Conjunctions
Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers
Parallel Construction
Strategies to Improve Your Writing
Reading to Learn Through Example
Writing From an Outline
Rereading the Draft
Seeking Help From Fellow Students
Working With Writing Centers
Revising a Paper

3. Bias-Free Language Guidelines
General Guidelines for Reducing Bias
Describe at the Appropriate Level of Specificity
Be Sensitive to Labels
Reducing Bias by Topic
Participation in Research
Racial and Ethnic Identity
Sexual Orientation
Socioeconomic Status

4. Punctuation, Lists, and Italics
Spacing After Punctuation Marks
Quotation Marks
Square Brackets
List Guidelines
Lettered Lists
Numbered Lists
Bulleted Lists
Use of ItalicsReverse Italics

5. Spelling, Capitalization, and Abbreviations
Preferred Spelling
Words Beginning a Sentence
Proper Nouns and Trade Names
Job Titles and Positions
Diseases, Disorders, Therapies, Theories, and Related Terms
Titles of Works and Headings Within Works
Titles of Tests and Measures
Nouns Followed by Numerals or Letters
Names of Conditions or Groups in an Experiment
Names of Factors, Variables, and Effects
Use of Abbreviations
Definition of Abbreviations
Format of Abbreviations
Unit of Measurement Abbreviations
Time Abbreviations
Latin Abbreviations
Chemical Compound Abbreviations

6. Numbers and Statistics
Numbers Expressed in Numerals
Numbers Expressed in Words
Combining Numerals and Words to Express Numbers
Ordinal Numbers
Decimal Fractions
Roman Numerals
Commas in Numbers
Plurals of Numbers
Statistics and Equations
Presentation of Statistics
Statistical Symbols and Abbreviations
Spacing, Alignment, and Punctuation for Statistics
Presentation of Equations

7. Tables and Figures
General Guidelines for Tables and Figures
Purpose of Tables and Figures
Design and Preparation of Tables and Figures
Graphical Versus Textual Presentation
Formatting Tables and Figures
Referring to Tables and Figures in the Text
Placement of Tables and Figures
Reprinting or Adapting Tables and Figures
Principles of Table Construction
Table Components
Table Numbers
Table Titles
Table Headings
Table Body
Table Notes
Standard Abbreviations in Tables and Figures
Confidence Intervals in Tables
Table Borders and Shading
Long or Wide Tables
Relation Between Tables
Table Checklist
Sample Tables
Principles of Figure Construction
Figure Components
Figure Numbers
Figure Titles
Figure Images
Figure Legends
Figure Notes
Relation Between Figures
Figure Checklist
Sample Figures

8. Works Credited in the Text
General Guidelines for Citation
Appropriate Level of Citation
Correspondence Between Reference List and Text
Use of the Published Version or Archival Version
Primary and Secondary Sources
Works Requiring Special Approaches
Classroom or Intranet Sources
Personal Communications
In-Text Citations
Author–Date Citation System
Parenthetical and Narrative Citations
Citing Multiple Works
Citing Specific Parts of a Source
Unknown or Anonymous Author
Translated, Reprinted, Republished, and Reissued Dates
Omitting the Year in Repeated Narrative Citations
Number of Authors to Include in In-Text Citations
Avoiding Ambiguity in In-Text Citations
Works With the Same Author and Same Date
Authors With the Same Surname
Abbreviating Group Authors
General Mentions of Websites, Periodicals, and Common Software and Apps
Paraphrases and Quotations
Principles of Paraphrasing
Long Paraphrases
Principles of Direct Quotation
Short Quotations (Fewer Than 40 Words)
Block Quotations (40 Words or More)
Direct Quotation of Material Without Page Numbers
Accuracy of Quotations
Changes to a Quotation Requiring No Explanation
Changes to a Quotation Requiring Explanation
Quotations That Contain Citations to Other Works
Quotations That Contain Material Already in Quotation Marks
Copyright and Permission
General Guidelines for Reprinting or Adapting Materials
Materials That Require Copyright Attribution
Copyright Status
Permission and Fair Use
Copyright Attribution Formats

9. Reference List
Reference Categories
Determining the Reference Category
Using the Webpages and Websites Reference Category
Online and Print References
Principles of Reference List Entries
Four Elements of a Reference
Punctuation Within Reference List Entries
Accuracy and Consistency in References
Reference Elements (Author, Date, Title, Source)
Author Element
Format of the Author Element
Spelling and Capitalization of Author Names
Identification of Specialized Roles
Group Authors
No Author
Date Element
Format of the Date Element
Updated or Reviewed Online Works
Retrieval DatesNo Date
Title Element
Format of the Title Element
Series and Multivolume Works
Bracketed Descriptions
No TitleSource Element
Format of the Source Element
Periodical Sources
Online Periodicals With Missing Information
Article Numbers
Edited Book Chapter and Reference Work Entry Sources
Publisher Sources
Database and Archive Sources
Works With Specific Locations
Social Media Sources
Website Sources
When to Include DOIs and URLs
Format of DOIs and URLs
DOI or URL Shorteners
No Source
Reference Variations
Works in Another Language
Translated Works
Reprinted, Republished, or Reissued Works
Religious and Classical Works
Reference List Format and Order
Format of the Reference List
Order of Works in the Reference List
Order of Surname and Given Name
Order of Multiple Works by the Same First Author
Order of Works With the Same Author and Same Date
Order of Works by First Authors With the Same Surname
Order of Works With No Author or an Anonymous Author
Abbreviations in References

10. Reference Examples
Author Variations
Date Variations
Title Variations
Source Variations
Textual Works
PeriodicalsBooks and Reference Works
Edited Book Chapters and Entries in Reference WorksReports and Gray LiteratureDissertations and ThesesReviewsInformally Published Works

Software and Tests
-Computer Software and Mobile Apps
-Tests, Scales, and Inventories
-Audiovisual WorksAudio Works
-Visual Works

Online Media
-Social Media
-Webpages and Websites

Legal References
-Cases or Court Decisions
-Statutes (Laws and Acts)
-Constitutions and Charters
-Treaties and International Conventions

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        Concise Rules of APA Style