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Web Scraping with Python

Collecting more Data From the Modern Web

Paperback Engels 2018 9781491985571
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Samenvatting

If programming is magic then web scraping is surely a form of wizardry. By writing a simple automated program, you can query web servers, request data, and parse it to extract the information you need. The expanded edition of this practical book not only introduces you web scraping, but also serves as a comprehensive guide to scraping almost every type of data from the modern web.

Part I focuses on web scraping mechanics: using Python to request information from a web server, performing basic handling of the server’s response, and interacting with sites in an automated fashion. Part II explores a variety of more specific tools and applications to fit any web scraping scenario you’re likely to encounter.

- Parse complicated HTML pages
- Develop crawlers with the Scrapy framework
- Learn methods to store data you scrape
- Read and extract data from documents
- Clean and normalize badly formatted data
- Read and write natural languages
- Crawl through forms and logins
- Scrape JavaScript and crawl through APIs
- Use and write image-to-text software
- Avoid scraping traps and bot blockers
- Use scrapers to test your website

Specificaties

ISBN13:9781491985571
Taal:Engels
Bindwijze:paperback
Aantal pagina's:290
Uitgever:O'Reilly
Druk:2
Verschijningsdatum:12-4-2018
Hoofdrubriek:IT-management / ICT

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Over Ryan Mitchell

Ryan Mitchell is a Software Engineer at LinkeDrive in Boston, where she develops their API and data analysis tools. She is a graduate of Olin College of Engineering, and is a Masters degree student at Harvard University School of Extension Studies. Prior to joining LinkeDrive, she was a Software Engineer working on web scraping and data analysis at Abine.

Andere boeken door Ryan Mitchell

Inhoudsopgave

Preface
What Is Web Scraping?
Why Web Scraping?
About This Book
Conventions Used in This Book
Using Code Examples
O’Reilly Safari
How to Contact Us
Acknowledgments

I: Building Scrapers
1. Your First Web Scraper
Connecting
An Introduction to BeautifulSoup
Installing BeautifulSoup
Running BeautifulSoup
Connecting Reliably and Handling Exceptions

2. Advanced HTML Parsing
You Don’t Always Need a Hammer
Another Serving of BeautifulSoup
find() and find_all() with BeautifulSoup
Other BeautifulSoup Objects
Navigating Trees
Regular Expressions
Regular Expressions and BeautifulSoup
Accessing Attributes
Lambda Expressions

3. Writing Web Crawlers
Traversing a Single Domain
Crawling an Entire Site
Collecting Data Across an Entire Site
Crawling Across the Internet

4. Web Crawling Models
Planning and Defining Objects
Dealing with Different Website Layouts
Structuring Crawlers
Crawling Sites Through Search
Crawling Sites Through Links
Crawling Multiple Page Types
Thinking About Web Crawler Models

5. Scrapy
Installing Scrapy
Initializing a New Spider
Writing a Simple Scraper
Spidering with Rules
Creating Items
Outputting Items
The Item Pipeline
Logging with Scrapy
More Resources

6. Storing Data
Media Files
Storing Data to CSV
MySQL
Installing MySQL
Some Basic Commands
Integrating with Python
Database Techniques and Good Practice
“Six Degrees” in MySQL
Email

II: Advanced Scraping
7. Reading Documents
Document Encoding
Text
Text Encoding and the Global Internet
CSV
Reading CSV Files
PDF
Microsoft Word and .docx

8. Cleaning Your Dirty Data
Cleaning in Code
Data Normalization
Cleaning After the Fact
OpenRefine

9. Reading and Writing Natural Languages
Summarizing Data
Markov Models
Six Degrees of Wikipedia: Conclusion
Natural Language Toolkit
Installation and Setup
Statistical Analysis with NLTK
Lexicographical Analysis with NLTK
Additional Resources

10. Crawling Through Forms and Logins
Python Requests Library
Submitting a Basic Form
Radio Buttons, Checkboxes, and Other Inputs
Submitting Files and Images
Handling Logins and Cookies
HTTP Basic Access Authentication
Other Form Problems

11. Scraping JavaScript
A Brief Introduction to JavaScript
Common JavaScript Libraries
Ajax and Dynamic HTML
Executing JavaScript in Python with Selenium
Additional Selenium Webdrivers
Handling Redirects
A Final Note on JavaScript

12. Crawling Through APIs
A Brief Introduction to APIs
HTTP Methods and APIs
More About API Responses
Parsing JSON
Undocumented APIs
Finding Undocumented APIs
Documenting Undocumented APIs
Finding and Documenting APIs Automatically
Combining APIs with Other Data Sources
More About APIs

13. Image Processing and Text Recognition
Overview of Libraries
Pillow
Tesseract
NumPy
Processing Well-Formatted Text
Adjusting Images Automatically
Scraping Text from Images on Websites
Reading CAPTCHAs and Training Tesseract
Training Tesseract
Retrieving CAPTCHAs and Submitting Solutions

14. Avoiding Scraping Traps
A Note on Ethics
Looking Like a Human
Adjust Your Headers
Handling Cookies with JavaScript
Timing Is Everything
Common Form Security Features
Hidden Input Field Values
Avoiding Honeypots
The Human Checklist

15. Testing Your Website with Scrapers
An Introduction to Testing
What Are Unit Tests?
Python unittest
Testing Wikipedia
Testing with Selenium
Interacting with the Site
unittest or Selenium?

16. Web Crawling in Parallel
Processes versus Threads
Multithreaded Crawling
Race Conditions and Queues
The threading Module
Multiprocess Crawling
Multiprocess Crawling
Communicating Between Processes
Multiprocess Crawling—Another Approach

17. Scraping Remotely
Why Use Remote Servers?
Avoiding IP Address Blocking
Portability and Extensibility
Tor
PySocks
Remote Hosting
Running from a Website-Hosting Account
Running from the Cloud
Additional Resources

18. The Legalities and Ethics of Web Scraping
Trademarks, Copyrights, Patents, Oh My!
Copyright Law
Trespass to Chattels
The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
robots.txt and Terms of Service
Three Web Scrapers
eBay versus Bidder’s Edge and Trespass to Chattels
United States v. Auernheimer and The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act
Field v. Google: Copyright and robots.txt
Moving Forward

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