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The Product Wheel Handbook

Creating Balanced Flow in High-Mix Process Operations

Paperback Engels 2013 9781466554184
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The Product Wheel (PW) design process has practical methods for finding the optimum sequence, minimizing changeover costs, and freeing up useful capacity. So much so, that the DuPont™ Company and Exxon Mobil are just a few companies that have used the product wheel concept to achieve and sustain a competitive advantage.

Breaking down a fairly complex design process into manageable steps, 'The Product Wheel Handbook: Creating Balanced Flow in High-Mix Process Operations' walks readers through the process for designing and implementing the PW technique. It includes a case study taken from actual practice that illustrates the design process and its benefits.

Describing how to apply the product wheel technique to any manufacturing operation, the book:
- Details the steps required to implement product wheels
- Explains why certain traditional manufacturing metrics should be reevaluated so they don’t inhibit product wheel performance
- Defines the cultural foundation necessary for smooth product wheel design and implementation
- Includes a real-world case study and several examples of product wheels being used by successful manufacturing companies—including BG Products, Inc., the DuPont™ Company, the Dow Chemical Company, and Appleton

Many of the steps in wheel design described in this book are not new. What’s new is their application to production planning and scheduling problems, and more importantly, a clear roadmap explaining how and when they should be used in product wheel design.

Supplying you with the tools to reduce the chaos often found in production scheduling, the book outlines a disciplined structure that will allow you to spend less of your time resolving schedule problems. Most importantly, it provides your organization with a stable platform to deal with abnormal events in a less stressful and more logical manner.


Aantal pagina's:219
Uitgever:CRC Press
Hoofdrubriek:Inkoop en logistiek


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Why Product Wheels?
Process Industry Challenges
Product Wheel Basics

The Problem: Production Sequencing, Campaign Sizing, Production Leveling
Challenges Facing Operations Managers—Production Leveling Challenges Facing Operations Managers—Random Sequence or Regular Pattern?
Challenges Facing Operations Managers—Optimum Sequence
Challenges Facing Operations Managers—Optimum Cycle
The Insidious Nature of Changeovers

<B>The Solution—Product Wheels
</B>Product Wheels Defined
Product Wheel Terminology
Simultaneous Operating Modes
Product Wheel Characteristics
Process Improvement Time
Benefits of Product Wheels
Product Wheel Applicability

The Product Wheel Design and Implementation Process
Product Wheel Design
Step 1: Begin with an up-to-date, reasonably accurate value stream map (VSM)
Step 2: Decide where to use wheels to schedule production
Step 3: Analyze product demand volume and variability—identify candidates for make to order
Step 4: Determine the optimum sequence
Step 5: Analyze the factors influencing overall wheel time
Step 6: Determine overall wheel time and wheel frequency for each product
Step 7: Distribute products across the wheel cycles—balance the wheel
Step 8: Plot the wheel cycles
Step 9: Calculate inventory requirements
Step 10: Review with stakeholders
Step 11: Determine who "owns" (allocates) the PIT time
Step 12: Revise the scheduling process
Product Wheel Implementation
Step 13: Develop an implementation plan
Step 14: Develop a contingency plan
Step 15: Get all inventories in balance
Step 16: Put an auditing plan in place
Step 17: Put a plan in place to rebalance the wheel periodically
Kaizen Events
Prerequisites for a Product Wheel

Step 1: Begin with an Up-to-Date, Reasonably Accurate VSM
An Example Process—Sheet Goods Manufacturing
A Value Stream Map
Material Flow—Process Boxes
Process Step Data Boxes
Material Flow Icons
Inventory Data Boxes
Information Flow
Step 2: Decide Where to Use Wheels to Schedule Production
Criteria for Product Wheel Selection
Analyze the VSM
Forming 1
Bonder 2
Bonder 1
Slitter 1

Step 3: Analyze Products for a Make-to-Order Strategy
Demand Volume
Demand Variability
Deciding on the Best Strategy for Each Product

Step 4: Determine the Optimum Sequence
Changeover Complexity
Optimizing the Forming 2 Sequence
Optimizing the Sequence in Complex Situations
Step 5: Analyze the Factors Influencing Overall Wheel Time
Time Available for Changeovers—The Shortest Wheel Possible
Finding the Most Economic Wheel Time
Leveling Out Short-Term Demand Variability
An Additional Word about Standard Deviation and CV
Making Practical Lot Sizes of Each Material
Protecting Shelf Life
Making to Stock Using a Trigger Point

Step 6: Put It All Together—Determine Overall Wheel Time and Wheel Frequency for Each Product
EOQ—The Most Economic Wheel Time
The Shortest Wheel Possible
Short-Term Demand Variability
Minimum Practical Lot Size
Shelf Life

Step 7: Arranging Products—Balancing the Wheel
Wheel Resonance
Achieving Better Balance
Wheels within Wheels

Step 8: Plotting the Wheel Cycles

Step 9: Calculate Inventory Requirements
Inventory Components
Total Inventory Requirements
Inventory Benefit of the Wheel
Customer Lead Time

Step 10: Review with Stakeholders
What to Review
Who to Include
Possible Concerns and Challenges

Step 11: Assign Responsibility for Allocating PIT Time
Appropriate Uses of PIT Time

Step 12: Revise the Scheduling Process
Wheel Concepts and the Production Scheduling System
Visual Management of the Current Wheel Schedule
Step 13: Develop an Implementation Plan
Step 14: Develop a Contingency Plan
Possible Wheel Breakers
Steps in Contingency Planning
Example of a Contingency Plan

Step 15: Get All Inventories in Balance

Step 16: Confirm Wheel Performance—Put an Auditing Process in Place
Step 17: Put a Plan in Place to Rebalance the Wheel Periodically
Prerequisites for Product Wheels
Foundational Elements
A Highly Motivated, Well-Trained Workforce
Standard Work
Visual Management
Total Productive Maintenance
A Value Stream Map
SKU Rationalization—Portfolio Management
Bottleneck Identification and Management
Cellular Manufacturing and Group Technology

Product Wheels and the Path to Pull
Product Wheels and Pull
Pull through the Entire Process

Unintended Consequences—Inappropriate Use of Metrics
Inappropriate Use of Metrics
Performance to Plan (PTP)

Cultural Transformation and Product Wheel Design—The Synergy

Case Studies and Examples
BG Products, Inc.—Automotive Fluids
The Appleton Journey
Dupont™ Fluoropolymers
Dow Chemical
Extruded Polymers
Waxes to Coat Cardboard
Sheet Goods for Hospital Gowns
Circuit Board Substrates
Fixed-Sequence Variable Volume
A Rose by Any Other Name

Appendix A: Cycle Stock Concepts and Calculations
Inventory Components Defined—Cycle Stock and Safety Stock
Calculating Cycle Stock—Fixed-Interval Replenishment Model

Appendix B: Safety Stock Concepts and Calculations
About Safety Stock
Variability in Demand
Variability in Wheel Time
Combined Variability
Using Safety Stock
Example—Forming Machine 2 Product Wheel

Appendix C: Total Productive Maintenance
The Need for Equipment Reliability and Operational Continuity
TPM Metric—Overall Equipment Effectiveness
Forming 2 OEE

Appendix D: The SMED Changeover Improvement Process
SMED Origins
SMED Concepts
Product Changeovers in the Process Industries

Appendix E: Bottleneck Identification, Improvement, and Management
Root Causes of Bottlenecks
Bottleneck Management—Theory of Constraints

Appendix F: Group Technology and Cellular Flow
Typical Process Plant Equipment Configurations
Cellular Manufacturing Applied to Process Lines


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