This book introduces blockchain technology applications in supply chains. Blockchain is a relatively new tool, nevertheless, there have been considerable advances over the last five years, and blockchain is now poised to revolutionize the conventional supply chains with the offering of accountability and quality to the wider complex supply networks.
Based on literature reviews and original research, this book serves as an essential introduction to blockchain and its applications in supply chain. The unique features of the book are empirical studies to demonstrate the application of blockchain technology in food, healthcare, manufacturing, transportation and retail sectors. Each chapter includes research framework and open research questions. Simple narration of concept and detailed insights from primary research information. Use case narrative will provoke the readers to demystify the myths in application of concepts in the supply chain . Overall, the book demystifies blockchain technology, reviews evolution and outlines its future applications by blending contents to meet the expectations of both academic and practice community.
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In this chapter, we will review the evolution of information technology over three decades and discuss the potential gaps and possible technology applications in several sectors. The comprehensive review is based on technology evolutionary framework and its applications in both upstream and downstream supply chains.
Chapter 2: Basics of blockchain
Blockchain is a reliable and unalterable digital data ledger for monitoring the transactions through the distributed consensus process (Kamble et al., 2018; Galvez et al., 2018). As a new business collaboration tool, Blockchain supports a secure, shared data network and allows untrusted parties to reach a consensus on a shared digital history, without using a trusted intermediary (Swan, 2015). Blockchain technology is at the early stage of development (Kshetri, 2017), however, it has made a great progress since last four to five years. Everledger is using the Blockchain technology to handover their diamonds in a trusted and credible way. For example, if we see a tag such as “everledger satisfied”, we can use our phone to scan interned of things (IOT) chip for diamond history that someone is purchasing.
This chapter will present the Blockchain ecosystem, working principles of Blockchain, opportunities of Blockchain in the supply chain, Blockchain coalitions and consensus structures and blockchain platforms for Blockchain-as-a-service (BaaS).
Chapter 3: Blockchain application in food supply chain
Monitoring the food supply chain and controlling food loss with blockchain technology is challenging. Global Food Traceability Centre has identified several challenges to implementation of food traceability systems. These include rapid shift in the preferences of customers, demands from regulators that are conflicting and overlapping, variation of traceability by product and by industry, lack of records and weak technical systems that prohibit rapid response times (Galvez et al., 2018).
This chapter will present applications of blockchain in food supply chains and outline potential benefits. It will also highlight the challenges in implementation and how those can be overcome.
Chapter 4: Blockchain application in healthcare supply chain
This chapter will assess the implication of blockchain technology on the pharmaceutical and medical device supply chain and also analyse how it may potentially improve efficiency in hospital operations as well as on patient safety.
Chapter 5: Blockchain application in transportation supply chain
This chapter will examine the implication of blockchain technology on transportation and mobility as well as the sharing economy and analyse how blockchain improve operational efficiency on transportation and the mobility of passengers and freight. Some Blockchain based mobility, city logistics and freight transport applications and use cases with sharing economy concept (e.g. Mobility-as-a-Service, mobility on demand) are explained. Also, this chapter will cover information about blockchain standards and regulations for transportation and some blockchain alliances for transportation (e.g. Blockchain in Transport Alliance (BiTA)).
Chapter 6: Blockchain application in retail supply chain (Yasa)
It will give the implication of blockchain technology in retail industry. Blockchain in retail will be analysed from four opportunities: consumer payments, product pedigree, b2b payments and digital advertising. In addition, Blockchain applications on E-commerce and Omnichannel will be given.
Chapter 7: Blockchain application in manufacturing supply chain
This chapter will assess the implication of blockchain technology on the supply chains of specific manufacturing sectors such as industrial products, automotive and aerospace across different processes such as sourcing, production, distribution and after-sales service including spare parts delivery and availability. It will also highlight how IoT, additive manufacturing and blockchain technologies can be used in combination to improve supply chain performance.
Chapter 8: Blockchain application in green/reverse supply chain
This chapter will asses the implication of blockchain technology on green/reverse supply chain for management of product recalls and return of faulty. We use risk benefit model to explain how reverse logistics could benefit from blockchain technology.
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