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Circuit Design with VHDL

Gebonden Engels 2020 9780262042642
Verkooppositie 2008Hoogste positie: 2008
Verwachte levertijd ongeveer 8 werkdagen

Samenvatting

A completely updated and expanded comprehensive treatment of VHDL and its applications to the design and simulation of real, industry-standard circuits.

This comprehensive treatment of VHDL and its applications to the design and simulation of real, industry-standard circuits has been completely updated and expanded for the third edition. New features include all VHDL-2008 constructs, an extensive review of digital circuits, RTL analysis, and an unequaled collection of VHDL examples and exercises. The book focuses on the use of VHDL rather than solely on the language, with an emphasis on design examples and laboratory exercises.

The third edition begins with a detailed review of digital circuits (combinatorial, sequential, state machines, and FPGAs), thus providing a self-contained single reference for the teaching of digital circuit design with VHDL. In its coverage of VHDL-2008, it makes a clear distinction between VHDL for synthesis and VHDL for simulation. The text offers complete VHDL codes in examples as well as simulation results and comments. The significantly expanded examples and exercises include many not previously published, with multiple physical demonstrations meant to inspire and motivate students.

The book is suitable for undergraduate and graduate students in VHDL and digital circuit design, and can be used as a professional reference for VHDL practitioners. It can also serve as a text for digital VLSI in-house or academic courses.

Specificaties

ISBN13:9780262042642
Trefwoorden:VHDL Design
Taal:Engels
Bindwijze:gebonden
Aantal pagina's:608
Uitgever:MIT Press
Druk:3
Verschijningsdatum:1-5-2020
Hoofdrubriek:IT-management / ICT
ISSN:

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Inhoudsopgave

Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvii

1 Review of Combinational Circuits 1
1.1 Combinational Circuits 1
1.2 Fundamental Logic Gates 2
1.3 Chain-Type versus Tree-Type Structures 3
1.4 Examples of Combinational Logic Circuits 4
1.4.1 Multiplexer 4
1.4.2 Address Decoder 5
1.4.3 Parity Detector 6
1.4.4 Priority Encoder 6
1.4.5 Binary-to-BCD Converters 6
1.5 Examples of Combinational Arithmetic Circuits 10
1.5.1 Full-Adder Unit 10
1.5.2 Carry-Ripple Adder 11
1.5.3 Faster Adders (Manchester, Carry-Lookahead, and Kogge-Stone Tree) 11
1.5.4 Adder Arrays 12
1.5.5 Subtracters 13
1.5.6 Incrementer, Decrementer, and Two’s Complementer 14
1.5.7 Parallel Multiplier 14
1.5.8 Comparators (Equality and Greater-than/Equal-to) 14
1.5.9 Arithmetic Logic Unit 15
1.6 Binary Arithmetic 16
1.6.1 Carry Bit and Overflow Flag 16
1.6.2 Unsigned Integer Arithmetic 17
1.6.3 Signed Integer Arithmetic 19
1.6.4 Extension, Truncation, Rounding, and Saturation 21
1.6.5 Floating-Point Arithmetic 24

2 Review of Sequential Circuits 29
2.1 Sequential Circuits 29
2.2 Latches 29
2.3 Flip-Flops 31
2.4 Glitch Analysis and Prevention 34
2.5 Register Transfer Level of Abstraction 35
2.6 Initial Examples of Sequential Circuits 36
2.6.1 Shift Registers 36
2.6.2 Synchronous Modulo-2N Counters 37
2.6.3 Synchronous Modulo-M Counters 38
2.6.4 Asynchronous Counters 38
2.6.5 Gray, Johnson, and One-Hot Counters 39
2.6.6 Signal Generators 41
2.6.7 Clock Dividers 41
2.6.8 Timers and Sequential Binary-to-BCD Converters 41
2.6.9 Tapped Delay Line 41
2.7 Clock Division 42
2.7.1 Common Clock Division Cases 42
2.7.2 Clock Division by Any Integer with Symmetric Phase 43
2.7.3 The Cost of Clock Division by an Even Integer 44
2.7.4 Breaking a Large Clock Divider into Smaller Serial Clock Dividers 46
2.8 Clock Multiplication and Phase-Locked Loops (PLLs) 46
2.9 Asynchronous Data and Synchronizers 48
2.9.1 Clock-Domain Crossing 49
2.9.2 A Practical Example: Frequency Meters 49
2.9.3 Dealing with Reset 52
2.10 Clock Gating 53
2.11 Additional Examples of Sequential Circuits 54
2.11.1 One-Shot and Pulse-Capturer Circuits 54
2.11.2 Switch Debouncers 55
2.11.3 Reference-Value Generators 58
2.11.4 Pulse Width Modulator 59
2.11.5 Pseudo-Random Sequence Generators 60
2.11.6 Digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filters 61
2.11.7 Digital Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters 64
2.11.8 Serializer and Deserializer Circuits 65

3 Review of Finite State Machines 67
3.1 Finite State Machines 67
3.2 State Transition Diagram and Machine Types 68
3.3 Representing versus Implementing 70
3.4 Moore-to-Mealy and Mealy-to-Moore Conversion 70
3.5 Time Behavior of Moore versus Mealy Machines 71
3.6 Choosing Between Moore and Mealy Machines 73
3.7 Transition Types 74
3.8 Incorrect State Transition Diagrams 75
3.9 Safe State Machines 78
3.10 Fundamental Hardware Architectures for FSMs 78
3.11 Encoding Styles 79
3.12 Fundamental Design Technique for FSMs 79
3.13 State Machine Categories 82
3.14 Dealing with Time 83
3.15 Dealing with Repetitive States 85
3.16 Pointer-Based FSM Implementation 86
3.17 Dealing with Recursivity 86
3.18 Number of Flip-Flops in FSMs 88
3.19 Examples of Category 1 (Regular) State Machines 88
3.19.1 Arbiter 89
3.19.2 Garage Door Controller 89
3.19.3 Datapath Control for a Greatest Common Divisor 90
3.20 Examples of Category 2 (Timed) State Machines 93
3.20.1 Car Alarm 93
3.20.2 Password Decoder 94
3.20.3 Serial Peripheral Interface for an A/D Converter 95
3.21 Examples of Category 3 (Recursive) State Machines 96
3.21.1 SRAM Memory Interface 97
3.21.2 Datapath Controller for a Serial Multiplier 97
3.21.3 Reference-Value Definer with Embedded Debouncers 99

4 Review of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) 101
4.1 Programmable Logic Devices 101
4.2 PLD Configuration Memories 103
4.3 PAL and PLA Devices 104
4.4 GAL Devices 104
4.5 CPLD Devices 105
4.6 FPGA Devices 107

5 Introduction to VHDL 115
5.1 About VHDL 115
5.2 Translation of VHDL Code into a Circuit 115
5.3 Design Flow 117
5.4 Commercial VHDL Tools 119
5.5 RTL Design Approach 119
5.6 Concurrent versus Sequential Statements 119
5.7 Lexical Elements of VHDL 120
5.7.1 Assignment Symbols 120
5.7.2 Comments 120
5.7.3 Bit and Bit String 121
5.7.4 Integers 121
5.7.5 Character and Character String 122
5.7.6 Identifiers 122
5.7.7 Delimiters 122
5.7.8 Reserved VHDL Words 123
5.8 Choosing Good Names for Your Design 123
5.8.1 Naming an Entity Declaration (“The Design”) 124
5.8.2 Naming an Architecture Body 124
5.8.3 Naming Constants 124
5.8.4 Naming Signals and Variables 125
5.8.5 Naming Functions and Procedures 125
5.8.6 Naming Types 126
5.8.7 Naming Files 127

6 Code Structure and Composition 129
6.1 Design Units and Code Structure 129
6.2 Libraries and Packages 130
6.3 Packages List in the Code 134
6.4 Entity Declaration 135
6.5 Architecture Body 138
6.6 Object Classes 138
6.6.1 Constant 139
6.6.2 Signal 140
6.6.3 Variable 141
6.6.4 File 142
6.7 Generics 143
6.8 Entity-Architecture Binding 145
6.9 Introductory VHDL Examples 145
7 Predefined Data Types 153
7.1 Predefined VHDL Types 153
7.2 Type Classes 154
7.3 Type Declarations 156
7.4 Subtypes 158
7.5 A Note on Operators and Attributes 159
7.6 Study of Predefined Data Types 159
7.6.1 Standard Types 160
7.6.2 Standard-Logic Types 162
7.6.3 Unsigned and Signed Types 165
7.6.4 Fixed-Point Types 166
7.6.5 Floating-Point Types 168
7.6.6 Type real 170
7.7 Record Types 172
7.8 Access Types, File Types, and Protected Types 173
7.9 Aggregation, Concatenation, and Resizing 173
7.9.1 Data Aggregation 173
7.9.2 Data Concatenation 175
7.9.3 Resizing Data Arrays 175
7.10 Type Conversion 178
7.10.1 Automatic Conversion 178
7.10.2 Type Cast 179
7.10.3 Type-Conversion Functions 179
7.10.4 Strength-Stripping Functions 182
7.11 Type-Qualification Expressions 183
7.12 Additional Examples 183
7.13 Exercises 185

8 User-Defined Data Types 193
8.1 Review of Synthesizable Predefined Types 193
8.2 User-Defined Types 193
8.2.1 Integer Types 193
8.2.2 Enumeration Types 195
8.2.3 Array Types 195
8.3 Building and Addressing Complex Array Types 196
8.3.1 Array Dimensionality 196
8.3.2 Predefined 1D Arrays 197
8.3.3 Building 1D × 1D Arrays 197
8.3.4 Building 2D Arrays 198
8.3.5 Building 1D × 1D × 1D Arrays 199
8.3.6 Building 3D Arrays 199
8.4 Checking and Resetting Data Arrays 199
8.4.1 Zeroing Entire Data Arrays 200
8.4.2 Checking Whether Data Arrays Contain Only Zeros 200
8.5 Classical Mistakes in Assignments 201
8.6 Additional Examples 204
8.7 Exercises 208

9 Operators and Attributes 213
9.1 Predefined Operators 213
9.1.1 Logical Operators 214
9.1.2 Arithmetic Operators 218
9.1.3 Comparison (Relational) Operators 223
9.1.4 Shift Operators 226
9.1.5 Concatenation Operator 227
9.1.6 Condition Operator 227
9.2 User-Defined Overloaded Operators 228
9.3 Predefined Attributes 229
9.3.1 Attributes of Scalar Types 229
9.3.2 Attributes of Array Types and Objects 230
9.3.3 Attributes of Signals 231
9.3.4 Attributes of Named Entities 231
9.4 User-Defined Attributes 232
9.5 Synthesis Attributes 234
9.5.1 State Machine Encoding Attributes 234
9.5.2 Safe State Machine Attributes 235
9.5.3 Keep-Logic Attribute 236
9.5.4 ROM and RAM Implementation Attributes 237
9.6 Group 237
9.7 Alias 238
9.8 Exercises 239

10 Concurrent Code 243
10.1 Concurrent Statements 243
10.2 The when Statement 246
10.3 The select Statement 248
10.4 The generate Statement 249
10.5 Component Instantiation Statements 252
10.5.1 Component Instantiation 252
10.5.2 Design Entity Instantiation 253
10.6 Avoiding Multiple Assignments to the Same Signal 256
10.7 Suggested Approaches for Arithmetic Circuits 259
10.8 Additional Examples and Exercises 264
11 Concurrent Code: Practice 265
11.1 Additional Design Examples Using Concurrent Code 265
Example 11.1. Vectors Absolute Difference Calculator 265
Example 11.2. Programmable Combinational Delay Line (Structural) 268
Example 11.3. Sine Calculator with Integers and ROM-Type Memory 270
11.2 Exercises 273
Part 1: Combinational Logic Circuits 274
Part 2: Combinational Arithmetic Circuits 277
Part 3: With Component Instantiation (Structural Code) 281

12 Sequential Code 283
12.1 Concurrent Code versus Sequential Code 283
12.2 Detecting Clock Transitions: clk’event or rising_edge(clk)? 284
12.3 The process Statement 285
12.4 The if Statement 288
12.5 The case Statement 291
12.6 The wait Statement 294
12.7 The loop Statement 295
12.8 The Sequential when and select Statements 297
12.9 Signal versus Variable 298
12.10 More about the Updating Rule of Signals and Variables 301
12.11 More about the Inference of Registers Rule 307
12.12 The Problem of Combinational Loops 312
12.13 Additional Examples and Exercises 313

13 Sequential Code: Practice 315
13.1 Additional Design Examples Using Sequential Code 315
Example 13.1. Generic Tree-Type Adder Array 315
Example 13.2. Single-Switch Debouncer 318
Example 13.3. FIR Filter with Fixed Coefficients 320
Example 13.4. Sequential Square-Root Calculator 322
13.2 Exercises 326
Part 1: Signal versus Variable 326
Part 2: Combinational Circuits 330
Part 3: Counters and Clock Dividers 330
Part 4: Timers and Associated Circuits 332
Part 5: Synchronism 337
Part 6: Shifters 339
Part 7: Controllers 340
Part 8: Serial Arithmetic Circuits 343
Part 9: Filters 347
Part 10: With Component Instantiation (Structural Code) 347

14 Packages and Subprograms 349
14.1 Package 349
14.2 Package with Generics 351
14.3 Function 353
14.4 Procedure 359
14.5 Function versus Procedure Summary 363
14.6 Subprogram with Generics and Generic Subprograms 364
14.7 Overloaded Subprograms 366
14.8 Assert and Report Statements 367
14.9 Exercises 369

15 The Case of State Machines 373
15.1 The Finite State Machine Approach 373
15.2 State Encoding Styles 375
15.3 VHDL for Regular (Category 1) State Machines 375
15.3.1 Hardware Architecture of Regular State Machines 376
15.3.2 Simple Moore-to-Mealy Conversion 376
15.3.3 VHDL Templates for Regular State Machines 378
15.4 VHDL for Timed (Category 2) State Machines 387
15.4.1 Hardware Architecture of Timed State Machines 387
15.4.2 VHDL Templates for Timed State Machines 388
15.5 VHDL for Recursive (Category 3) State Machines 395
15.5.1 Hardware Architecture of Recursive State Machines 395
15.5.2 VHDL Templates for Recursive State Machines 395
15.6 Summarizing (and Simplifying) Things 402
15.7 Exercises 402

16 The Case of State Machines: Practice 407
16.1 Design Examples of Regular (Category 1) State Machines 407
16.2 Design Examples of Timed (Category 2) State Machines 412
16.3 Design Examples of Recursive (Category 3) State Machines 416
16.4 Exercises 421
Part 1: Exercises with Regular FSMs 421
Part 2: Exercises with Timed FSMs 422
Part 3: Exercises with Recursive FSMs 425
16.5 Exercises with SPI, I2
C, and LCD Interfaces 426

17 Additional Design Examples 427
17.1 Additional Design Examples 427
Example 17.1. SPI Interface for an EEPROM Device (with FSM) 428
Example 17.2. SPI Interface for an EEPROM Device (with Pointer) 434
Example 17.3. I
C Interface for an A/D Converter (with Pointer) 440
Example 17.4. I
C Interface for an A/D Converter (with Pointer Built with FSM) 444
Example 17.5 Digital Watch with Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) 447
Example 17.6 VGA Video Interface for a Hardware-Generated Image 454
Example 17.7 DVI Video Interface for a Hardware-Generated Image 458
Example 17.8 TMDS 8B/10B Encoder 464
17.2 Exercises 468
Part 1: Exercises with SPI Protocol 468
Part 2: Exercises with I2
C Protocol 469
Part 3: Exercises with Alphanumeric LCD 471
Part 4: Exercises with VGA Video Driver 472
Part 5: Exercises with DVI Video Driver 473

18 Introduction to Simulation with Testbenches 475
18.1 Testbenches 475
18.2 Dealing with Time in VHDL 476
18.3 Stimuli Generation 478
18.4 Complete Testbenches 482
18.5 Practical Considerations on Functional and Timing Simulations 489
18.6 Dealing with Data Files 490
18.7 Running Simulation with Tcl Scripts 495
18.8 Exercises 495

Appendix A: Vivado Tutorial 497
Appendix B: Quartus Prime Tutorial 511
Appendix C: ModelSim Tutorial 521
Appendix D: Simulation Analysis and Recommendations 531
Appendix E: Using Seven-Segment Displays with VHDL 533
Appendix F: Serial Peripheral Interface 537
Appendix G: I2 C (Inter Integrated Circuits) Interface 541
Appendix H: Alphanumeric LCD 545
Appendix I: VGA Video Interface 551
Appendix J: DVI Video Interface 555
Appendix K: TMDS Link 559
Appendix L: Using Phase-Locked Loops with VHDL 563
Appendix M: List of Enumerated Examples and Exercises 571

Bibliography 581
Index 583

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